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To classify different demands of cultivation the recommondations for different groups of cultivation have been split up as follows. Every species belongs to a certain group of cultivation but they can also be cultivated successfully with other groups. For all species we basically recommend a quite dry, low-watered hibernation just covered by a glass-plate or at least by a piece of fleece to protect the plants against bar frosts. I want to pay your attention to the choice of the soil which should be chosen according to the PH value required for the particular species. For e.g. with PH 6 you usually use crushed granit or lava stone instead of crushed limestone. Further additives should be chosen according to PH-requirements . Please notice the differnt conditions of light every species needs and don`t forget to protect them against snails, sucking insects etc. and to do regular controls.
Group 1 Alpinhouse plants
Group 2 Plants without winter protection
Group 3 Rockgarden plants
Group 4 Bulbs - and tuber plants
Group 5 Cypripedium
PH 6 = sourly (e.g. GRANITE)
PH 6.5 = neutrally
PH 7 = alkalinely (LIME)
s = sunny location
hs = semi shady location
sch = shady location
Group 1 : Alpine House plants(1a) or plants which should be covered by a glass-plate during the winter (1b).
A year-round cultivation should be successful by using a special culture area made of glass or you plant them out into special beds filled up with sand. The second method needs a coverplate of glass for protection during wintertime and long lasting rainy periods.
You preferably put the plants into clay pots filled with mineral soil. You can use 50 % coarse grit , 35 % sand, 10 % perlite, Seramis, pumice gravel, crushed burned clay pebbles or vermiculite and 15 % of fibrous loam without peat. For the drainage on the bottom of the pot you can use coarse grit or crushed burned clay pebbles. You put a small clay pot into a bigger one (double pot method) or preferably you sunk the pots into a sand plunge. Round the underside of the plant you put a layer of fine chippings (1-2 cm) to protect the plant against rotting and moss-growth. If you use the double-pot method , you water just the edge of the outer pot. Using the second method the pot plunged in sand should either be watered with the help of a capillary watering system (see sketch) or you just water the sand around the edge of the pot. This keeps the pot-soil slightly moist. At the end of October you should pour away the water (capillary) and the plants should be only watered during very dry or warm periods around the edge of the pot.
In March you increase the waterlevel to its usual niveau. The recommended soil may be fertilized every third week between May and July with a liquid fertilizer 0,1-0,2 %. Avoiding those which are rich in nitrogen!
Capillary watering system This scetch was was made available by Mr. Michael Kammerlander, Würzburg
You put the plants into special sand beds. Insert a strong textile mat into these beds round the edge of the hole to protect the plants against weeds and pressure from outside roots. Frame the bed with stone - or tuff plates and spread a drainage layer
(using 10-15 cm gravel or other coarse-grained material)
The soil of the bed (about 25 cm deep) mostly consists of gravel riversand 0-3mm(75 %) and further additives like grainy loam (15 %) and 10 % broken crushed burned clay pebbles, Seramis, coarse grit and unwashed pumice gravel.
Add 2 cm coarse grit on the soil which prevents eventual erosion of the soil and stops it from becoming incrusted. As above mentioned the bed should be protected from water in wintertime. The beds also needs a glass cover-plate for protection during long wet periods of time. During hot and dry periods the plants should be moistured more often as usual beds.
The recommended mineral soil may be fertilized every third week between May and July with a liquid fertilizer 0,1-0,2 %. Avoiding those which are rich in nitrogen!
You cultivate the plants as set out in 1b by using specially prepared tuff plates or between stratified rocks. Notice that there is a need to roof the sand bed over during wintertime.
Set the plants vertikal or horizontal in therefore prepared holes. These holes are filled with the same soil as described under point 1a . If you put the platns into the hole protect the roots by wrapping sphagnum round the plants roots . Afterwards you cautiously put the plants into the pre-chilled hole.
To keep the plants sligtly moist, frame the bed with stone- or tuff plates. The rest should be filled up with soil which provides the plants with moisture.During long dry periods the beds should be lightly watered as described under point 1b.
Group 2: Sensitive species who don`t need a coverplate of glass for protection during wintertime
You cultivate these plants in beds filled up with sand as described under point 1 b.
There is no need to roof this place over.
The plants should just be covered by a piece of fleece for being protected against bar frosts during wintertime.
You cultivate these plants as set out in 1c by using specially prepared tuff or between stone -plates which are put above each other. There is no need to roof this place over.
Group 3: Rockgarden plants
This group of plants fits well into the rock garden. They need porous soil enriched with
30 % finely graveled stone, 20 % sand and 40 % crumbly humous loam. You can also add peat (max.15 % ) perlite, unwashed pumice gravel and crushed burned clay pebbles to improve the soil. Make sure you have a good drainage with crushed stones or broken clay-pots of approximately 10 cm.
You cultivate these plants as set out in 1c by using specially prepared tuff or betweeen above mentioned stone plates. There is no need to roof this place over.
Group 4 : Sensitive tuberous and bulbous plants /Geophyten
The cultivation of Geophyten is quite similar to 1a and 1b. The only difference is in the cycle of watering and the intensity of feeding. The growth of the roots starts in autumn so you should start first watering early October.
The soil has to be kept only moderately moist until march. When the plants starts growing you can regularly water them (in the beginning 1 x per week, later 2 x per week with increasing temperature.) There should also be given a liquid fertilizer (0,4%) at an interval of 2 weeks. In the beginning of feeding choose a well-balanced fertilizer. Later you should avoiding those which are rich in nitrogen!
If the plants stop growing you should stop fertilizing and watering entirely until Octobre.(Coverplate of glass for protection during the summer - and wintertime).
These plants should never dry out completely in summertime and should be lightly watered after the foliage goes dormant at an interval of 2-3 weeks. (Coverplate of glass for protection during the wintertime).
Group 5 : Cypripedium and other sensitive plants
These plants should be planted into plastic-container(1. or 2.) for alpinehouse or garden-frame - culture or for cultivation into special outdoor beds(3.).
As a soil for container-culture we recommend following mixture:
1. Use a drainage made out of crushed burned clay pebbles (4cm) and a soil which contains 50 % Seramis, 40 % perlite and 10 % compost for ornamentals based on decomposed bark without peat.
2. Use a drainage made out of crushed burned clay pebbles (4cm) and a soil which contains 50 % Seramis, 20 % unwashed pumice gravel, 10 % crushed burned clay pebbles, 10 % perlite and 10 % compost for ornamentals based on decomposed bark without peat.
The roots of the plant will be spread over the soil which is fills up to about 50 % of the container. The rest of the soil should be kept onto the roots. The shoot tip should be covered by another 5 mm of the soil . Cover it with 1,5-2 cm crushed burned clay pebbles
When the plants starts growing you can regularly water them (in the beginning 1 x per week, later 2 x per week with increasing temperature.) There should also be given a liquid fertilizer (0,2%-0,3%) at an interval of 2-3 weeks from March to August. In the beginning of feeding choose a well-balanced fertilizer. Later you should avoiding those which are rich in nitrogen!
3. You dig a bed which is at least 50 cm wide and long and about 30 cm deep. Insert a strong textile mat round the edge of the hole to protect the plant against weeds and pressure from outside roots. Frame the bed with stones and spread a drainage layer by using gravel or other coarse-grained material. Use a soil which contains loam 20 %, Seramis 40 %, crushed burned clay pebbles or Lavalit 10 %, washed pumice gravel 10%, riversand 10 % and 10 % compost for ornamentals based on decomposed bark without peat.
A crumbly structure of the soil up to 20 cm depth is important
If available you can also add pumice gravel and perlite.
This mixture needs to be covered with crushed burned clay pebbles or crushed stones or pine needles. It prevents eventual erosion of the soil and stops it from becoming incrusted. During time of vegetation water regularly. Concerning the containerculture covered under glass experience has told us to water once every two weeks from the end of march till the middle of april. Afterwards water once or twice a week. During dry and hot periods the plants need to be watered up to twice a week. After the foliage goes dormant keep the soil only moderately moist until spring. The bed should be covered by a fleece until spring to guarantee a mild hibernation. Use also a fleece to protect the plants from late spring frost.
There should also be given a liquid fertilizer (0,2%) at an interval of 2-3 weeks from March to August. In the beginning of feeding choose a well-balanced fertilizer. Later you should avoiding those which are rich in nitrogen!
These plants prefer a dry place during wintertime and therefore they need (unlike described in 5 a) a glass cover-plate to protect the plants against too much wettness. In February as well as during a long dry and warm spell in winter the plants should be moistured slightly all-around. If the plants are kept too damp during wintertime they would prematurely shoot. This means that they might get problems with frost and perhaps suffer a long term damage.
As to container-culture covered under glass please treat plants as described under point 5a